MARINE KH PLUS is a liquid solution used to increase carbonate hardness in marine reef aquariums. Sea water has a KH content that is between 8 - 9 degrees. In the aquarium it is advisable to keep this value between 8 and 10 degrees.The KH is the measure of the alkalinity of the water produced by the presence of CO³²- and HCO³- carbonates. Its "structure" can be represented by the significant presence of carbonates, calcium bicarbonates and magnesium bicarbonates and is measured on the basis of the quantity of acid necessary to produce a pH shift that converts all bicarbonates (HCO³) into carbonic acid (H2CO³). A correct alkalinity value of the water helps to keep the pH stable.The buffering action of KH is represented by this reaction:
CO² + H²O ↔ H²CO³ ↔ H+ + HCO³-
CO² = carbon dioxide
H²O = water
H²CO³ = carbonic acid
HCO³- = bicarbonate ions
The effect of adding CO² to seawater creates an increase in the contraction of H2CO3, HCO3- and H+ and a decrease in the concentration of CO³²- which lowers the pH.
CO² + H²O ↔ H²CO³ ↔ H+ + HCO³- ↔ CO³³- + H+
CO³²- = carbonate
As with calcium and magnesium, KH is also essential for healthy coral growth. The growth of the skeleton is influenced by KH as it is involved in the transition from bicarbonates to carbonates, therefore this power of dissolution of KH helps to balance the quantities of calcium and magnesium that can be dissolved in water. To raise the level of calcium to facilitate the growth of corals, we must inevitably raise the KH; in this way the calcium and carbonate ions meet in solution and stabilise each other, without creating precipitations.
250 ml - Item code RKH